Category: Autistic


ADHD Can Happen When Adult

New York, hyperactive behavior or ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) has been more prevalent in children. But it can also be experienced by ADHD adults. Why is emerging as an adult ADHD?

ADHD symptoms in adults include:

   1. Anxiety
   2. Impatience
   3. Often experienced chronic delays
   4. Difficulties in terms of organized
   5. Focus can only solve one problem
   6. Impulsive (act of a sudden).

Someone has to pay attention and realize if you have symptoms like that in him. It is estimated that about 4.4 percent of U.S. adults, or nearly 10 million people have ADHD, but less than one quarter are aware of it.

Adults unaware if he was affected by ADHD because they thought ADHD occurs when still a child, so that when they ignore the symptoms arise.

Some people who experience this condition was not noticed as a teenager, so many new meyadarinya as adults. In the 1980s, therapists acknowledge that it can survive this disorder in adults. Even now, to get an accurate diagnosis is still difficult.

“ADHD is often coupled with depression, anxiety and bipolar disorder making it difficult to identify which symptoms first arise. These allow someone to treat due to anxiety or depression for years, but is not aware of the existence of ADHD,” said Maria Solanto, director of the center AD / HD at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City, as quoted from the Wallstreet Journal, Wednesday (7/4/2010).

Adults with ADHD possibility of experiencing drug or substance abuse, accidents, difficulty to work normally and also difficult in maintaining relationships. But they are usually very intelligent, energetic, charismatic, creative and able to focus attention on the one that interested him.

ADHD is a disorder of executive functions of the brain, namely the inability to plan, start something at the right time, eliminating one step and immediately ended it at the right time. This is due to the absence of neurotransmitter in the brain balance.

“Chaos or disorder that occurs in the body has helped them to get innovative ideas. It is truly amazing to see these people succeed, despite having ADHD,” said Ivan K. Goldberg, a psychiatrist in New York City.

In general, ADHD can make life more difficult. In adults usually have problems in terms of attention, focus and priority, so managing your time and money can be difficult.

This condition is experienced by Linda Hensens (46 years) a medical transcriptionis in Clayton, New York City, he was known to have ADHD after a surgeon bariatic ask about his work habits.

“It’s very difficult for me to sit quietly in a chair, I felt so anxious and always wanted to wake up from a chair,” he said.

Experts say ADHD can interfere with everyday life. If someone occasionally too late of course it does not matter, but if it is always too late and the more chronic, lost his job and also his friends, had a messy room, often have an accident or can not get the job done on time, then this is a problem. These people were not necessarily want to do it, but can not afford to do so.

There is no blood test or brain scan that can diagnose ADHD. People suspected of having ADHD after a thorough evaluation. Once diagnosed with ADHD, most experts recommend treatment with medication and behavior therapy.

However, the use of medications should be careful, because if the dose is too high or inappropriate given the drug could make him lose his creative side. While these drugs can help with ADHD become more focused, and behavior therapy can help him do the right thing.

Detik

Therapy Autism With Pets

Maintaining a pet at home as a hobby but also has other benefits, one of them is as a therapy for autistic children. This therapy is performed by the autistic child was 11 years old named Milo who did with her dog named Chad.

The relationship between man and animals do have a direct effect, although this effect can not be explained through scientific research. But the relationship between Milo and Chad over the general relationship occurs.

“Within a week I saw a huge change in him, after a month she became more calm and able to concentrate and communicate within a longer time,” said Mrs. Vaccaro who is the mother of Milo, as quoted from the New York Times, Friday (9 / 10/2009).

Dr Melissa A Nishawala a clinical director of autism-spectrum services in the Child Study Center at New York University, added themselves to see real change in self Milo became more calm and able to communicate even seen the dog just sat there in the room. As a result of profound changes in self-Milo, now Vaccaro and Dr. Nishawala began trying to stop the medication that is used by Milo.

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, which is part of the National Institutes of Health also began an effort to learn whether pets can have a real effect on the welfare of children.

It required more scientific research that can explain the benefits of these therapies, particularly its impact on child development. Because so far most research only focuses on negative interactions than just pets, as pets can spread disease.

At Children’s Hospital of Orange County in Southern California, for example, dozens of volunteers regularly brought her dog to visit children of patients who received treatment for serious illness. Usually these children often experience sadness, anxiety or depression. The most important thing is that pets should be free from all kinds of diseases and have received vaccinations correctly.

“The dogs are brought by these volunteers can enlighten the children,” said Emily Grankowski, which oversees the pet therapy program at the hospital.

Expected later this pet therapy could lead to new treatments in curing children who often experience depression, sadness or a child with autism. However, do not close the possibility of this therapy can also be done for adults.
(Detik)

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Parents of children with hyperactivity (ADHD) in the United States began to experiment with marijuana treatment. Calming effects of cannabis are believed to be able to reduce aggressive behavior children with ADHD.

Parents who use marijuana for treatment of these children dared to publicly oppose the flow of using of marijuana  for autism or ADHD because there is no proof. Controversy over the use of marijuana as medicine children with ADHD were helpers spread spontaneously.

In the state of California, cannabis is the stuff that allowed its use as medicine. Some doctors there now trying to treat children with ADHD or hyperactive children with marijuana.

Marijuana laws in California already allows its use as a medicine since 2004. There are at least 36,000 are reported to a doctor’s prescription to use marijuana as medicine, including to treat hyperactive children or ADHD (Attention Deficit Disorder Hyperacitivty).

According to Stephen Hinshaw, professor of psychology from the University of California at Berkeley, the use of cannabis as a medicine is very dangerous, especially for children and adolescents.

“Although the impact both for patients with ADHD, but marijuana can damage the brain’s cognitive functions. The active ingredient in marijuana can cause interference to remember,” Hinshaw said as reported by the New York Times, Thursday (26/11/2009).

Until now, the use of marijuana as a drug not yet approved by the Food and Drug Agency or the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and no studies that prove really good effects marijuana use to treat ADHD.

But many doctors who believe that the active ingredients contained in amphetamines marijuana, if given in small doses in people with ADHD may produce a better effect, which is more focused. A professor from Harvard Medical School said that marijuana is more effective than other drugs for ADHD.

“I do not think so without hesitation and no matter if you want to give an oral cannabis in people with ADHD because in some cases children with ADHD, marijuana was more effective than other drugs are more dangerous such as Ritalin and Aderall,” explained Professor Lester Grinspoon , a psychiatrist from Harvard Medical School.

According to the National Institute of Mental Health, ADHD children have some symptoms such as difficulty concentrating, can not follow the rules, easily disturbed, agitated and restless (hyperactive). As many as 4.5 million children in the U.S. currently reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have ADHD.

A mother who has a child with ADHD even claim that marijuana can cure her son. “My son was diagnosed ADHD at 6 years. He was very hyperactive and difficult to follow the lessons in school. But I decided not to use the drug Ritalin because too many side effects. When he entered high school, I realized he was calm and able to concentrate. Initially I also do not understand, until one day he said that he used marijuana, “said a woman from California.

However, Professor Hinshaw remained curious about the success stories that ADHD patients are successfully cured with marijuana. According to him, there needs to be further investigation to know the other side effects from the use of marijuana as a medicine and need special monitoring if forced to use it.

Meanwhile, Professor Grinspoon also remain optimistic on the stand, marijuana is a drug that is the future that can treat ADHD.

“I think one day, marijuana will be recognized as a drug, especially for ADHD due to side effects that are not toxic,” says Grinspoon.
(Detik)

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Jangan mematok gejala autisme hanya pada kontak mata. banyak orangtua terkecoh dan akhirnya menyesal karena mengabaikan gejala-gejala lain. Kini autisme menyeruak satu di setiap 150 batita.

Istilah autisme berasal dari kata “auto” yang berarti berdiri sendiri. Istilah ini diperkenalkan oleh Leo Kramer pada tahun 1943 karena melihat anak autisme memiliki prilaku aneh, terlihat acuh dengan lingkungan dan cenderung menyendiri seakan-akan hidup dalam dunia yang berbeda. Perilaku aneh yang tergolong gangguan perkembangan berat ini terjadi karena adanya kerusakan saraf dibeberapa bagian otak.

Menurut Dr. Rudy sutadi, SpA, spesialis anak dari Pusat Terapi Kid Autis, kerusakan saraf otak ini muncul karena banyak faktor, termasuk masalah genetik dan faktor lingkungan. Autisme terbagi dua. Disebut autisme klasik manakala kerusakan saraf sudah terdapat sejak lahir, karena sewaktu mengandung, ibu terinfeksi virus, seperti rubella, atau terpapar logam berat berbahaya seperti merkuri dan timbal yang berdampak menagacaukan proses pembentukan sel-sel saraf di otak janin.

Jenis kedua disebut autisme regresif. Muncul saat anak berusia antara 12 sampai 24 bulan. Sebelumnya perkembangan anak relatif normal, namun tiba-tiba saat usia anak meninjak 2 tahun kemampuan anak merosot. Yang tadinya sudah bisa membuat kalimat 2 sampai 3 kata berubah diam dan tidak lagi berbicara. Anak terlihat acuh dan tidak mau melakukan kontak mata. Kesimpulan yang beredar di klangan ahli menyebutkan autisme regresif muncul karena anak terkontaminasi langsung oleh faktir pemicu. Yang paling disorot adalah paparan logam berat terutama merkuri dan timbal dari lingkungan.

Sebuah harapan

Dulu penyandang autisme dianggap tidak punya masa depan, sekarang peluang sembuh terbuka lebar. Anak autisme dikatakan sembuh bila mampu mengikuti sekolah reguler, berkembang dan hidup mandiri di tengah masyarakat dengan tidak menunjukkan gejala sisa. kini di luar negeri sudah ada anak autisme yang bersekolah samapi S3, menikah, dan memiliki anak bahkan menjadi pejabat. Kunci kesembuhan anak autisme ada dua, yaitu intervensi terapi perilaku dengan metode ABA dan intervensi biomedis. ABA merupakan singkatan dari Applied Behaviour analysis(ABA). Dipergunakan pertama kali dalam penanganan autisme oleh Lovaas, sehingga disebut dengan metode Lovaas. Metode ini melatih anak berkemampuan bahasa, sosial, akademis, dan kemampuan membantu diri sendiri. Pada tahun 1967, Lovaas sudah membuktikan ABA bisa memperbaiki ketidaknormalan anak autisme dnan tingkat keberhasilan sampai 89 persen. Sedangkan Intervensi biomedis diperlukan untuk membenahi kerusakan sel-sel tubuh akibat keracunan logam berat dan mengusir kendala-kendala yang menghalangi masuknya nutrisi ke otak. Intervensi biomedis menuntut anak untuk menjalani diet tertentu. Jenis makanan yang dipantang bergantung kondisi seberapa parah keracunan yang terjadi. Umumnya anak autisme dilarang mengkonsumsi susu sapi dan makanan mengandung tepung terigu.

Diet Susu Sapi dan Terigu

Susu sapi mengandung protein kasein sedangkan terigu mengandung protein gluten. Menurut Rudy, tubuh anak-anak autis tidak bisa mencerna kasein dan gluten secara sempurna. Uraian senyawa yang tidak sempurna masuk ke pembuluh darah dan sampai ke otak sebagai morfin. Ini terbukti dengan ditemukannya kandungan morfin yang bercirikan kasein dan gluten pada tes urine anak-anak autisme. Keberadaan morfin jelas mempengaruhi kerja otak dan pusat-pusat saraf sehingga anak berprilaku aneh dan sulit berinteraksi dengan lingkungannya. “Makanya anak autisme berprilaku seperti anak morfinis. kadang-kadang saja bisa berinteraksi dengan lingkungannya tapi hanya sementara kemudian ngawur lagi” kata Rudy. Dengan diet kasein dan gluten dapat meminimalkan gangguan morfin dan merangsang kemampuan anak menerima terapi ABA.

Deteksi autisme

Amati gerak balita Anda, sebab gejala autisme muncul pada fase usia 0-3 tahun ada banyak gejala autisme. sekalipun ada kontak mata, jika anak menunjukkan gejala autisme lain, sebaiknya segera berkonsultasi dengan dokter saraf anak atau ahli kejiwaan anak untuk memastikan diagnosa autisme. Diagnosa bisa dipercaya bila dokter melakukan test dengan kriteria DSM IV atau ICD-10.

Indikator perilaku autistik pada anak-anak Bahasa dan Komunikasi

  • Ekspresi wajah datar
  • Tidak menggunakan bahasa atau isyarat tubuh
  • Jarang memulai komunikasi
  • Tidak meniru aksi dan suara
  • Bicara sedikit atau tidak ada
  • Mengulangi atau membeo kata-kata, kalimat-kalimat, atau nyanyian
  • Mengucapkan intonasi atau ritme vokal yang aneh
  • Tampak tidak mengerti arti kata. Kalau mengerti dan menggunakan kata secara terbatas

Hubungan dengan orang Tidak responsif

  • Tidak ada senyum sosial
  • Tidak berkomunikasi dengan mata
  • Kontak mata terbatas
  • Tampak asyik bila dibiarkan sendirian
  • Tidak melakukan permainan giliran
  • Menggunakan tangan orang dewasa sebagai alat untuk melakukan sesuatu

Hubungan dengan lingkungan Bermain repetitif atau diulang-ulang

  • Marah dan tidak menghendaki perubahan
  • Berkembangnya rutinitas yang kaku
  • Memperlihatkan ketertarikan yang sangat pada sesuatu dan tidak fleksibel
  • Respon terhadap rangsangan Panik terhadap suara-suara tertentu

  • Sangat sensitif terhadap suara
  • Bermain dengan cahaya dan pantulan
  • Memainkan jari-jari di depan mata
  • Menarik diri ketika disentuh
  • Sangat tidak suka dengan pakaian, makanan, atau hal-hal tertentu
  • Tertarik pada pola, tekstur, atau bau tertentu
  • Sangat inaktif atau hiperaktif
  • Mungkin suka memutar-mutar sesuatu, bermain berputar-putar, membentur-benturkan kepala, atau menggigit pergelangan
  • Melompat-lompat atau mengepak-ngepakan tangan
  • Tahan atau berespon aneh terhadap nyeri
  • Kesenjangan perkembangan perilaku Kemampuan akan sesuatu mungkin sangat baik atau sangat terlambat

    • Mempelajari keterampilan di luar urutan normal. Misal : membaca tapi tidak mengerti arti
    • Menggambar secara rinci tapi tidak bisa mengancingkan baju
    • Pintar memainkan puzzle tapi amat sukar mengikuti perintah
    • Berjalan pada usia normal, tapi tidak bisa berkomunikasi
    • Lancar membeo bicara, tapi sulit memulai bicara dari diri sendiri (inisiatif komunikasi)
    • Suatu waktu dapat melakukan sesuatu, tapi di lain waktu tidak

    Vaksinasi: Manfaat dan Bahaya

    Dalam tubuh sekelompok anak autisme di AS yang sebelumnya berkali-kali menjalani imunisasi ditentukan kandungan merkuri di atas kadar normal. Bagaimana merkuri bisamasuk ke dalam tubuh anak? ternyat, beberapa jenis vaksin mengandung pengawet thimerosal. Hampir 50 persen senyawa ini terdiri dari etilmerkuri.

    Fakta lain tentang kaitan vaksin dan autismen diungkapkan Andrew Wakefield sekitar tahun 1998. Dokter asal Inggris ini memaparkan pemberian vaksin kombinasi MMR (Measles,Mumps,dan Rubella) untuk mencegah penyakit campak, gondong dan rubella (campak jerman) sekalipun vaksin tersebut tidak mengandung merkuri.

    Rudy menjelaskan MMR berisikan tiga viurs, diberikan pada anak dengan harapan anak dapat langsung memiliki tiga natibodi. Pada anak-anak tertentu, kedatangan tiga virus sekaligus menimbulkan reaksi autoimun dimana zat yang seharusnya melindungi malah menyerang tubuh, tepatnya yang serang bagian selubung serabut saraf otak.

    Saat ini belum satu pun negara melarang penggunaan vaksin-vaksin tersebut, mengingat keberadaannya diperlukan untuk mencegah wabah penyakit berbahaya di masyarakat luas. Negara maju seperti AS pun baru tahap memerintahkan produsen untuk emnghentikan pembuatan vaksin ber-thoimerosal dan segera memproduksi vaksin bebas merkuri. Stok vaksin bermerkuri masih digunakan. Bila produksi vaksin baru telah mencukupi kebutuhan negaranya, barulah vaksin “bermasalah” ditarik dari peredaran.

    karenanya Rudy menyarankan dalam melakukan vaksinasi sebaiknya para orangtua lebih mengutamakan kondisi individu anak. Bila di lingkungan keluarga besar ada yang mengidap autisme, kelainan genetik seperti down syndrown, atau penyakit autoimun seperti lupus dan jantung rematik, anak beresiko mengidap autisme. Tetap berikan imunisasi untuk melindungi anak dari penyakit menular, tetapi lakukan dengan yang cara lebih teliti. Mintalah dokter memberikan vaksinasi measles,mumps,dan rubella dengan jadwal terpisah berjarak sekitar 3 bulan antara satu dengan yang lainnya.

    Diagnosing autism

    Diagnosing autism

    Every diagnostic appointment with a specialist represents the convergence of three stories: 1)the child, who comes to the appointment with a certain history and in a certain frame of mind, more or less willing to interact; 2)the parents, who come with their own story and their own willingness or ability to relate that story; and 3) the diagnostician, who may be a physician, child psychologist or special educator, who also comes with their own training and experience, and the willingness or ability to listen to or elicit that story. Autism is a clinical diagnosis, based on history and observations. It cannot be confirmed with the certainty of disorders like juvenile diabetes or Down syndrome. There are autism-specific diagnostic tests, but they, too, rely on excellent observations of a child’s behaviors at a particular point in time.

    Physicians use the diagnostic criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), as listed below.

    Educators may use different criteria in order to diagnose “educational autism.”

    DSM definition

    Autism is defined in section 299.00 of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as:

    1. A total of six (or more) items from (1), (2) and (3), with at least two from (1), and one each from (2) and (3):

    1. qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following:

    1. marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction

    2. failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level

    3. a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest)

    4. lack of social or emotional reciprocity

    2. qualitative impairments in communication as manifested by at least one of the following:

    1. delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gesture or mime)

    2. in individuals with adequate speech, marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others

    3. stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language

    4. lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level

    3. restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, as manifested by at least one of the following:

    1. encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus

    2. apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals

    3. stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements)

    4. persistent preoccupation with parts of objects

    2. Delays or abnormal functioning in at least one of the following areas, with onset prior to age 3 years:

    1. social interaction

    2. language as used in social communication

    3. symbolic or imaginative play.

    3. The disturbance is not better accounted for by Rett syndrome or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder.

    These are rules of thumb and may not necessarily apply to all diagnosed autistics.

    Floortime

    Floortime is a developmental intervention for children experiencing developmental delays due to autism, Asperger syndrome, or other developmental disorders. Floortime involves meeting a child at his or her current developmental level, and building upon a particular set of strengths. Floortime is child-focused — the parent or therapist follows the child’s lead, with playful positive attention and tuning in to the child’s interests. Proponents of Floortime claim that by entering into a child’s world, support can be given to climb the “developmental ladder”.

    While interventions such as Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) have proved effective as interventions for autism spectrum disorders, new types of developmental interventions such as Floortime have emerged in response to criticisms that the rote learning involved with behavioral interventions may not result in generalized learning.

    Daily Life Therapy

    Daily Life Therapy (DLT), called Seikatsu Ryouho in Japanese, is an intervention which focuses on teaching children with autism to successfully interact in groups. It was pioneered by Dr Kiyo Kitahara, and practiced at the Higashi School in Japan. Daily Life Therapy was developed in Japan and from there it spread to many other countries, including the USA where it was introduced in the year 1987. According to a report, “Dr. Kitahara’s methods emerged naturally from her experience teaching an autistic child who was in her regular kindergarten class. Her methodology of group dynamics incorporates physical education, art, music, academics, the acquisition and development of communication and daily living skills to promote social independence. Recognizing that children with autism tend to be socially isolated, sometimes developmentally delicate, and are often anxious, sensitive and fragile, Dr. Kitahara developed a unique educational approach to address these characteristics.”[1]

    Pivotal Response Treatment

    Pivotal Response Treament (PRT) is a behavioral intervention therapy for autism.

    The two primary pivotal areas are motivation and self-intiations. The other three are self-management, empathy, and the ability to respond to multiple signals, or cues. Pivotal response therapy uses a play environment to teach skills such as turn-taking, communication, and language. This training is child-directed: the child makes choices that direct the therapy. PRT also emphasizes parents as the primary intervention agents. According to the Autism Society of America, PRT includes “child choice, task variation, interspersing maintenance tasks, rewarding attempts, and the use of direct and natural reinforcers. The child plays a crucial role in determining the activities and objects that will be used in the PRT exchange. For example, intentful attempts at functional communication are rewarded with a natural reinforcer (e.g., if a child attempts a request for a stuffed animal, the child receives the animal, not a piece of candy or other unrelated reinforcer). Pivotal Response Treatment is used to teach language, decrease disruptive/self-stimulatory behaviors, and increase social, communication, and academic skills.”[1]

    The Miller Method

    The Miller Method is a system which addresses the developmental requirement of children on autism spectrum. This method was pioneered by Dr. Arnold Miller utilizing a “Cognitive-Developmental Systems Approach for Children on the Autism Spectrum”. According to the official site of the Miller Method, “We maintain that each child – no matter how withdrawn or disorganized – is trying to find a way to cope with the world. Our task is to help that child use every capacity or fragment of capacity to achieve this.”[1]

    Diagnosing autism

    Every diagnostic appointment with a specialist represents the convergence of three stories: 1)the child, who comes to the appointment with a certain history and in a certain frame of mind, more or less willing to interact; 2)the parents, who come with their own story and their own willingness or ability to relate that story; and 3) the diagnostician, who may be a physician, child psychologist or special educator, who also comes with their own training and experience, and the willingness or ability to listen to or elicit that story. Autism is a clinical diagnosis, based on history and observations. It cannot be confirmed with the certainty of disorders like juvenile diabetes or Down syndrome. There are autism-specific diagnostic tests, but they, too, rely on excellent observations of a child’s behaviors at a particular point in time.

    Physicians use the diagnostic criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), as listed below.

    Educators may use different criteria in order to diagnose “educational autism.”

    DSM definition

    Autism is defined in section 299.00 of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as:

    1. A total of six (or more) items from (1), (2) and (3), with at least two from (1), and one each from (2) and (3):

    1. qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following:

    1. marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction

    2. failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level

    3. a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest)

    4. lack of social or emotional reciprocity

    2. qualitative impairments in communication as manifested by at least one of the following:

    1. delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gesture or mime)

    2. in individuals with adequate speech, marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others

    3. stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language

    4. lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level

    3. restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, as manifested by at least one of the following:

    1. encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus

    2. apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals

    3. stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements)

    4. persistent preoccupation with parts of objects

    2. Delays or abnormal functioning in at least one of the following areas, with onset prior to age 3 years:

    1. social interaction

    2. language as used in social communication

    3. symbolic or imaginative play.

    3. The disturbance is not better accounted for by Rett syndrome or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder.

    These are rules of thumb and may not necessarily apply to all diagnosed autistics.

    Floortime

    Floortime is a developmental intervention for children experiencing developmental delays due to autism, Asperger syndrome, or other developmental disorders. Floortime involves meeting a child at his or her current developmental level, and building upon a particular set of strengths. Floortime is child-focused — the parent or therapist follows the child’s lead, with playful positive attention and tuning in to the child’s interests. Proponents of Floortime claim that by entering into a child’s world, support can be given to climb the “developmental ladder”.

    While interventions such as Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) have proved effective as interventions for autism spectrum disorders, new types of developmental interventions such as Floortime have emerged in response to criticisms that the rote learning involved with behavioral interventions may not result in generalized learning.

    Daily Life Therapy

    Daily Life Therapy (DLT), called Seikatsu Ryouho in Japanese, is an intervention which focuses on teaching children with autism to successfully interact in groups. It was pioneered by Dr Kiyo Kitahara, and practiced at the Higashi School in Japan. Daily Life Therapy was developed in Japan and from there it spread to many other countries, including the USA where it was introduced in the year 1987. According to a report, “Dr. Kitahara’s methods emerged naturally from her experience teaching an autistic child who was in her regular kindergarten class. Her methodology of group dynamics incorporates physical education, art, music, academics, the acquisition and development of communication and daily living skills to promote social independence. Recognizing that children with autism tend to be socially isolated, sometimes developmentally delicate, and are often anxious, sensitive and fragile, Dr. Kitahara developed a unique educational approach to address these characteristics.”[1]

    Pivotal Response Treatment

    Pivotal Response Treament (PRT) is a behavioral intervention therapy for autism.

    The two primary pivotal areas are motivation and self-intiations. The other three are self-management, empathy, and the ability to respond to multiple signals, or cues. Pivotal response therapy uses a play environment to teach skills such as turn-taking, communication, and language. This training is child-directed: the child makes choices that direct the therapy. PRT also emphasizes parents as the primary intervention agents. According to the Autism Society of America, PRT includes “child choice, task variation, interspersing maintenance tasks, rewarding attempts, and the use of direct and natural reinforcers. The child plays a crucial role in determining the activities and objects that will be used in the PRT exchange. For example, intentful attempts at functional communication are rewarded with a natural reinforcer (e.g., if a child attempts a request for a stuffed animal, the child receives the animal, not a piece of candy or other unrelated reinforcer). Pivotal Response Treatment is used to teach language, decrease disruptive/self-stimulatory behaviors, and increase social, communication, and academic skills.”[1]

    The Miller Method

    The Miller Method is a system which addresses the developmental requirement of children on autism spectrum. This method was pioneered by Dr. Arnold Miller utilizing a “Cognitive-Developmental Systems Approach for Children on the Autism Spectrum”. According to the official site of the Miller Method, “We maintain that each child – no matter how withdrawn or disorganized – is trying to find a way to cope with the world. Our task is to help that child use every capacity or fragment of capacity to achieve this.”[1]

    Self stimulation is a key aspect of autistic children. While other children and adults cannot understand why the autistic child does this behaviour it is something they are rather obsessive about and seemingly unable to stop. This behaviour is also commonly referred to as stimming. Stimming is a repetitive behaviour that keeps the child engaged in their own world but serves to stimulate their senses in some form or another. It is often used to help the child regulate themselves in a stressful environment.

    Many children with autism have difficulties interpreting sensory information. Whether the world seems to rough, too bright, too loud or any other number of things, it all boils down to their minds not properly coping with the world around them. Stimming is one way that the autistic child can bring back control of their world. It can manifest itself in many ways such as running in circles, arm flapping or humming. Though these behaviours may disturb those around them, they are the child’s way of working out things in their world that don’t seem right. They are not doing it to seek attention or to create a fuss, they are simply trying to cope with a stressful situation.

    There is a positive and negative side to stimming, one side are calming behaviours which help the child to regulate themselves and overcome a situation of stress or upset, the other kind is just like when any child becomes over worked and wound up, where they run in circles or yell and scream. You should try to refocus your child to the calming behaviours without reprimanding them for their excited behaviour. A negative reaction to the excited behaviour may actually do the exact opposite of what you are trying to accomplish and may lead the child to doing the behaviour obsessively out of reaction to your reaction.

    No matter the self stimulation your child engages in you need to understand this is something that they need to do in order to find peace in their autistic world.

    Glenn Doman method

    The Method Utilized: Theoretical Support

    The Glenn Doman method is an innovative and provocative method of learning. In
    chapter 7 of his book entitled ‘How to Teach your Baby to Read”, Glenn Doman
    suggests the age at which the baby must start, which can be as early as 10 months
    of age.

    Doman highlights the importance of the parents’ attitudes in respect to the activity
    to be developed, which must be one that this is a good game and not a job like any
    other. He explains that the sessions must end prior to the child’s loss of interest.

    Doman also reminds us that the material, despite being simple, must follow
    specifications, once it is designed to attend to the fact that reading is a brain
    function, and as such must attend to the limitations of the baby, since the brain
    only has its reading function stimulated in the right way. He orients us on how to
    present the words, and how to draw the letters in them.

    He turns next to a description of how to develop seven steps which he considers
    essential:

    1. Visual differentiation (way of making the cards);

    2. Proper vocabulary;

    3. Vocabulary of the family environment;

    4. Vocabulary to build sentence’s structure;

    5. Structured phrases and sentences;

    6. Reading of a real book (i.e., the first book);

    7. The alphabet.

    He then concludes the chapter saying that “man is man essentially because he can
    read and write”.

    I will present in a following article how I adapted the Glenn Doman method to my
    three babies and how the activity developed into a lifetime of learning and fun!

    Eliane Leao, PhD

    Glenn Doman method (c) 2006

    Titik saraf Akupuntur


    Akupresur merupakan salah satu metode yang sangat mudah dan murah , karena hanya membutuhkan kedua tangan dalam mengatasi nyeri yang anda rasakan.

    Prinsip dari akupresur ini berasal dari pengobatan kedokteran timur, dimana dikenal adanya aliran energi vital di tubuh ( dikenal dengan nama Chi atau Qi ( Cina ) dan Ki ( Jepang ) ) . Aliran energi ini sangat mempengaruhi kesehatan. Ketika aliran ini terhambat atau berkurang maka anda akan sakit dan ketika aliran ini bebas/ baik maka andapun akan sehat. Suplai dan aliran energi vital berjalan di saluran listrik tubuh yang tidak kelihatan , yang disebut “ meridian”. Baik tidaknya meridian ini sangat bergantung dari diet, pola hidup, lingkungan, postur tubuh, cara bernafas, tingkah laku, gerakan tubuh, olah raga, sikap mental, kepribadian, dan sikap yang positif. Maka jelaslah bahwa pendekatan seseorang agar tetap sehat harus melihat pada banyak faktor ini.

    Salah satu teknik untuk melancarkan energi vital adalah dengan akupresur , yaitu : menekan titik tertentu ( yang dikenal dengan nama acupoint ) dengan menggunakan telunjuk maupun ibu jari untuk menstimulasi aliran energi di meridian. Tehnik ini sudah digunakan ratusan tahun dengan sangat aman dan efektif. Akupresur ini sangat mudah dipelajari dan juga membutuhkan waktu yang sedikit untuk menerapkannya.

    Acupoint terletak di seluruh tubuh, dekat dengan permukaan kulit dan terhubung satu sama lain melalui jaringan yang komplek dari meridian. Setiap acupoint mempunyai efek khusus pada sistem tubuh, atau organ tertentu. Menstimulasi dan memijat secara lembut titik tersebut akan terjadi perubahan fisiologi tubuh dan akan mempengaruhi keadaan mental dan emosional.

    Acupoint ini merupakan titik yang sensitif dan mempunyai efek tertentu yang terletak di sepanjang meridian akupuntur. Saat ini lebih dari 360 acupoint di meridian seluruh tubuh dan sekarang banyak lagi ditemukan titik –titik tambahan. Beberapa acupoints terletak di dekat organ target yang diaturnya sedangkan beberapa terletak jauh dari organ target. Kebanyakan acupoint ini terletak bilateral / di dua sisi tubuh, oleh sebab itu akupresur dilakukan pada kedua sisi tubuh kecuali acupoint yang terletak di bagian tengah tubuh.

    Lokasi pasti dari acupoint dapat dilihat pada ilustrasi di bawah. Acupoint ini mungkin terletak sedikit dalam, di antara tulang, otot, atau tendon. Setelah anda mencapai daerah dekat titik yang di ilustrasikan, perhatikan dan sisakan waktu sebentar untuk merasakan daerah tersebut dengan jari anda yang sensitif. Selalu ada daerah yang lebih sedikit sensitif dan pada keadaan yang imbalans acupoints biasanya lebih lembut dari sekitarnya. Dengan latihan yang sering dan teratur anda akan semakin sensitif dan rasa percaya diri akan bertambah. Semakin anda sering melakukannya, akan semakin mudah untuk menemukan lokasi acupoints .

    Teknik akupresur

    Penekanan dilakukan dengan ujung jari. Penekanan pada saat awal harus dilakukan dengan lembut, kemudian secara bertahap kekuatan penekanan ditambah sampai terasa sensasi yang ringan , tetapi tidak sakit. Pada individu yang sensitif seperti bayi , maupun orang tua maka tekanan dapat dibuat lebih lembut. Penekanan dapat dilakukan 30 detik sampai 2 menit .

    Pada bab ini akan dibahas beberapa accupoint untuk mengatasi beberapa kondisi nyeri seperti : Sakit kepala tipe tegang , migren, sakit gigi, nyeri sendi, depresi dan kecemasan, nyeri tulang belakang .

    Sakit kepala tipe tegang dan migren

    Beberapa titik yang digunakan untuk mengurangi nyeri kepala adalah :

    1. Titik yang terletak di puncak kepala ; pertemuan antara garis yang menghubungkan kedua telinga dan garis yang ditarik dari bagian tengah hidung ( titik 1 a ). Efek : mengurangi rasa tegang di kepala.
    2. Titik yang terletak di bagian dalam alis mata, di atas sudut mata bagian dalam ( titik 2 a ). Efek : mengurangi rasa tegang di dahi dan nyeri sekitar mata.
    3. Titik yang terletak di sudut mata bagian luar ( titik 2 b ). Efek : mengurangi nyeri kepala, migren dan mata pedih.
    4. Titik yang terletak di dahi sekitar 1 ibu jari di atas bagian tengah alis ( titik 2 c ). Efek : menghilangkan nyeri kepala bagian depan dan penglihatan kabur.
    5. Titik yang terletak di bagian belakang kepala, pada perbatasan lekukan antara bagian dasar tengkorak dengan otot leher ( titik 3 a ). Efek : mengurangi nyeri kepala dan leher yang kaku.
    6. Titik yang terletak di tengah segitiga yang dibentuk oleh tulang ibu jari dan jari telunjuk ( titik 4 a ). Efek : mengurangi nyeri kepala dan mata pedih.
    7. Titik yang terletak di belakang pergelangan kaki ( titik 5 a ) . Efek : mengurangi nyeri kepala dan leher kaku.
    8. Titik yang terletak di tengah ,1 jari di atas batas rambut ( titik 1 b ). Efek : mengurangi nyeri kepala bagian depan dan mata pedih.
    9. Titik yang terletak di tengah antara dua alis ( titik 1 c ). Efek : mengurangi nyeri kepala bagian depan dan nyeri kepala akibat hidung tersumbat.
    10. Titik yang terletak 4 jari di bawah tempurung lutut ( titik 6 a ) . Efek : merupakan titik penguat sistem pencernaan dan mengurangi nyeri kepala akibat ketidakseimbangan sistem pencernaan, intoleransi makanan, dan kelelahan.
    11. Titik yang terletak 1 ibu jari dari ujung alis mata dan sudut luar mata ( titik 1 d ) . Efek : mengurangi nyeri akibat migren dan nyeri mata.
    12. Titik yang terletak 2 jari di atas telinga ( titik 1 e ). Efek : mengurangi nyeri kepala migren.
    13. Titik yang terletak di bagian luar dari lengan anda. 3 jari dari pergelangan tangan , di lekukan antara dua tulang. ( titik 7 a ). Efek : mengurangi nyeri akibat migren dan nyeri di pipi.
    14. Titik yang terletak di atas telapak kaki, 2 jari di atas sendi jari kaki, antara jari ke 4 dan 5. ( titik 6 b ). Efek : mengurangi nyeri migren, penglihatan kabur dan nyeri mata.

    Sakit gigi

    Pada penekanan daerah muka dilakukan pada sisi yang tidak sakit.

    1. Titik yang terletak di depan sudut tulang rahang ( titik 1 f ). Efek : mengurangi nyeri gigi dan pembengkakan di muka.
    2. Titik yang terletak pada tulang pipi. Di depan lubang telinga ( titik 1 g ).Efek : mengurangi nyeri gigi, nyeri pada wajah.
    3. Titik yang terletak di depan siku tangan, pada saat siku ini ditekuk ( titik 8 a ). Efek : mengurangi nyeri gigi dan nyeri yang ada di mulut.

    Kesehatan sendi

    Beberapa acupoints dapat membantu menyehatkan sendi dan memperkuat sendi di seluruh tubuh. Beberapa acupoints juga membantu menguatkan otot yang menunjang sendi.

    1. Titik yang terletak di belakang leher, sejajar dengan pundak, 2 jari di samping tulang belakang. ( titik 3 b ). Efek : merupakan titik yang sangat berpengaruh pada kesehatan sendi di seluruh tubuh, meningkatkan kekuatan tubuh, tulang dan sendi yang sehat.
    2. Titik yang terletak di bagian belakang lutut. 4 jari di atas tulang kaki ( titik 9a ). Efek : menguatkan tulang di seluruh tubuh, khususnya tulang dan sendi lutut.
    3. Titik yang terletak di bagian luar dari kaki, di atas permukaan pertemuan antara 2 tulang ( titik 6 c ). Efek : menguatkan tendon dan otot pada seluruh tubuh, terutama : sendi kaki dan menguatkan otot kaki.
    4. Titik yang terletak di titik tertinggi dari pundak ( titik 3c ) . Efek : mengurangi kekakuan dan nyeri di daerah leher dan pundak .

    Siku tangan

    1. Titik 8 a. Efek : Menguatkan siku tangan
    2. Titik yang terletak di bagian luar dari tangan, 3 jari di atas pergelangan tangan, di antara kedua tulang ( titik 7 a ). Efek : meningkatkan mobilitas dari siku dan mengurangi nyeri di siku, lengan dan jari tangan.

    Pergelangan tangan dan tangan

    1. Titik 7 a.
    2. Titik yang terletak antara tendon di sisi dalam tangan, 3 jari di atas pergelangan tangan ( titik 10 a ). Mengurangi nyeri di siku , pergelangan tangan dan merilekskan otot di lengan bawah.
    3. Titik yang terletak di permukaan luar pergelangan tangan. Pada lekukan antar tulang, jika pergelangan tangan dilekukkan ke arah atas , sejajar dengan jari manis ( titik 7 b ) . Efek : mengurangi nyeri di pergelangan tangan, telapak tangan dan jari-jari.

    Kesehatan tulang belakang.

    Untuk menyehatkan tulang belakang dapat dilakukan penekanan titik-titik untuk kesehatan sendi. Ditambah dengan beberapa titik berikut :

    1. Titik yang terletak di puncak dari pundak, perbatasan dengan leher ( titik 3c ). Efek : mengurangi nyeri di daerah pundak dan punggung atas.
    2. Titik yang terletak di dekat lipatan siku , pada saat siku dibengkokkan ( titik 8 a ) . Efek : menghilangkan nyeri dan kekakuan pada tubuh bagian atas.
    3. Titik- titik yang terletak di bagian belakang tubuh ( titik 11 a ). Untuk penekanan titik- titik daerah ini dapat menggunakan 2 buah bola tenis yang dimasukkan dalam kaus kaki dan diletakkan dibelang punggung .Efek : mengurangi nyeri pinggang bawah.
    4. Titik yang terletak di bagian belakang lutut , diantara tendon ( titik 9a ). Efek : menghilangkan nyeri di daerah kaki dan tulang belakang.
    5. Titik yang terletak di bagian belakang pergelangan kaki ( titik 5a ). Efek : mengurangi nyeri di tulang belakang dan kaki.

    Kesehatan Sendi pinggul

    1. Titik yang terletak di bagian pinggul anda ( titik 11b ) . Efek : meningkatkan mobilitas dan mengurangi nyeri.

    Kesehatan Sendi lutut

    1. Titik yang terletak di bawah lutut , pada lekukan tulang ( knee acupoint). Efek : mengurangi nyeri dan kekakuan di lutut.
    2. Titik yang terletak di belakang pergelangan kaki ( titik 5a ) : efek mengurangi nyeri di lutut dan tungkai bawah.

    Kesehatan pergelangan kaki

    1. Titik yang terletak di belakang pergelangan kaki ( titik 5a ). Efek : mengurangi nyeri dan menguatkan pergelangan kaki.
    2. Titik yang terletak pada bagian luar dari pergelangan kaki dan di bagian luar dari tendon ( titik 6c ). Efek : mengurangi nyeri dan pembengkakan di pergelangan kaki.

    Kesehatan telapak kaki

    1. Titik yang terletak di dasar telapak kaki, pada bagian lekukan dekat dengan tonjolan telapak kaki ( titik 12 a ). Efek : megurangi nyeri pada telapak kaki.
    2. Titik-titik untuk kesehatan pergelangan kaki ( titik 6b, 6c ) ).

    Acupoint untuk membantu anda lebih rileks.

    Beberapa acupoint di bagian tubuh dapat membuat anda lebih rileks. Beberapa titik tersebut adalah :

    1. Titik 1a . Efek : meningkatkan konsentrasi dan menyeimbangkan pikiran anda.
    2. Titik 4a . Efek : mengurangi kecemasan. Catatan : jangan menekan titik ini terlalu keras pada wanita hamil.
    3. Titik yang terletak di dekat pergelangan tangan sejajar dengan jari ke 5 ( titik 10 b ). Efek : membuat rileks tubuh anda. Merupakan titik kunci untuk mengurangi segala kecemasan dan gangguan tidur.
    4. Titik yang terletak di antara tendon , tiga jari di atas pergelangan tangan ( gambar 10a ). Efek : mengurangi kecemasan dan membuat rileks tubuh anda

    GAMBAR BEBERAPA TITIK AKUPRESUR UNTUK MENGURANGI NYERI


    dr. Yuda Turana/www.medikaholistik.com/230101